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Pacific Salmon and Steelhead Trout: Managing Under the Endangered Species Act

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Publication Date: December 2006

Publisher(s): Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service

Series: 98-666

Topic: Environment (Ocean and ocean resources)


Along the Pacific Coast, 26 distinct population segments of Pacific salmon and steelhead trout are listed as either endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Human activities have combined to greatly degrade, reduce, and eliminate fish habitat and otherwise harm populations of anadromous (sea-run) fish. In addition, natural phenomena stress fish populations and contribute to their variable abundance. Current management efforts aim to restore the abundance of ESA-listed native northeast Pacific salmonids to historic, sustainable population levels. This report summarizes the reasons for ESA listings and outlines efforts to protect ESA-listed species. This report will be updated periodically to reflect the changing situation.