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Cargo On The Move Through California: Evaluating Container Fee Impacts on Port Choice.

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In many coastal areas, marine freight traffic contributes significantly to overall air pollution levels. This is particularly true in the vicinity of major marine ports in California, where active freight movement, including ocean-going vessels shipping consumer goods in large freight containers, has led to increases in ambient levels of particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and sulfur oxides (SOx).1-2 Additionally, elevated levels of these pollutants have been linked to significant local and regional health impacts such as asthma, heart disease and premature death.